A cardiovascular disease (CVD) may involve the blood vessels, the heart, or both and is a general term characterizing diseases related to them. Usually, cardiovascular diseases are manifested by the occurrence of blood clots or by the accumulation of fat or plaque inside the arteries (atherosclerosis). Apart from the heart, cardiovascular disease may also impact the health and condition of the eyes, brain, and kidney.
Types of Cardiovascular Diseases
Cardiovascular diseases can be broadly classified under 4 different groups and a cardiologist can best determine the precise disease. The types of CVD are listed below.
Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary heart disease is a medical condition which is manifested by stoppage or a reduced blood flow to the heart muscles so that the heart receives insufficient or no nutrients and oxygen. The best cardiologist in India offers to you the right treatment of this condition and disease. The increased strain on the heart is evident in the form of conditions such as:
Chest pain that occurs because of a reduced blood flow to the heart muscles
A chronic condition in which the efficiency of the heart towards pumping an adequate amount of blood to all body parts reduces over a period of time.
A condition characterized by the sudden stoppage of blood flow to the heart and heart muscles
Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Stroke is a medical condition in which the blood flow to the brain is stopped or is inadequate. Stroke can also cause Irreversible brain damage and may be fatal.
Also called a mini-stroke, the transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a medical condition where the blood flow and supply to the brain is temporarily disrupted.
The acronym FAST depicts the symptoms of the conditions.
F- Drooping or dropping on the face
A- Numbness or weakness in arm and an inability to lift them
S- Speech difficulties including slurring and the stroke-affected person may not be able to talk
T-time is of crucial essence and doctor should be reached immediately
Peripheral Artery Disease
Another cardiovascular disease and condition involving the blood vessels, the peripheral artery diseases are characterized by a blockage within the arteries, which provide fresh and oxygenated blood to other limbs, usually the legs. The condition usually has symptoms like numbness or weakness in the legs/feet, loss of hair on the leg/feet leg pain and occurrence of ulcers on the feet and leg frequently.
Aorta is the largest blood vessel which supplies blood from the heart to other parts of the body. Aortic diseases are the medical condition affecting this blood vessel. An Aortic Aneurysm is one of these medical conditions which cause the weakening and subsequent bulging of the aorta. Bursting of this blood vessel also occurs and the condition can be fatal. There are no symptoms of this condition.
Risk Factors and Causes
While the causes of cardiovascular disease may not be pinpointed, there are certain risk factors that make you more prone towards the disease. If your lifestyle, conditions including health and family condition or habits include a greater number of risk factors, your chances of being affected by a cardiovascular disease increase.
High blood pressure
Chronic high blood pressure is bad for your heart and blood vessel health. Hypertension and conditions of increased blood pressure may cause damage to the blood vessels.
Cholesterol is a kind of fat. Abnormal levels of cholesterol within the blood may narrow, clog and block the arteries and may result in a clot that impedes or stops the blood flow.
The harmful substances present in tobacco may narrow and damage the blood vessels. Hence smoking and other forms of tobacco consumption should be completely avoided.
Inactivity and sedentary Lifestyle may cause obesity, increased heart rate, and also increase the level of cholesterol in the blood. All these factors can be a cause of cardiovascular disease.
Diabetes or abnormal levels of sugar within the blood can damage and narrow the arteries and blood vessels.
Obesity causes an increased risk of hypertension and diabetes, which are damaging to the heart and blood vessels.
Apart from these cases, a family history of cardiovascular diseases, ethnicity, an age of over 50 years, improper diet, and alcohol abuse may also be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Men are more prone to be affected by CVD.
Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
Prevention of cardiovascular diseases involves healthy lifestyle changes, right diet, and refraining from bad habits. An active Lifestyle and refraining from alcohol abuse and tobacco consumption help you prevent cardiovascular diseases. Regular consumption of diet low in sugar, salt, and saturated fats, and high in fiber and fruits and vegetables are also good for your cardiovascular health.
Different kinds of medications can be used alone or in combination for treatment of heart disease. Formation of blood clots is prevented through the use of Aspirin while Statins can be used for lowering blood cholesterol levels. Other medications are also used for reducing and controlling blood pressure.
A leading heart hospital can offer you the best treatment for all cardiovascular diseases including stroke and heart failure. It is good to undergo regular health check-ups to ensure good cardiac and overall health.